National Conservation Context

Because of its social and economical conditions, its extraordinary biological wealth – 500.000 estimated  species that represent 5% of the global biodiversity—and its relatively small size; Costa Rica presents ideal conditions to organize, in all concerning aspects, a national effort to conserve its biological diversity.

On this path, the country has taken enormous steps.  On the last four decades, a national park system has been consolidated, to complement the other protected wild areas’ management categories, which all together represent nearly 25% of the national territory.  In 1986, the Natural Resources, Energy and Mines Ministry (MIRENEM) was created, known today as the Environment, Energy and Telecommunications Ministry (MINAET),  which centralized all the regulating and promotion actions relating to conserving and managing the country’s natural resources.

Similarly, and because of the growing concerns regarding a good resource management, the National System of Conservation Areas (SINAC) was developed by national consent, ant it is run directly under the MINAET responsibility, and supported by private entities.

Furthermore, Costa Rica has developed a national program aiming to conserve most of the biodiversity by using it in a sustainable and equitable way.  Costa Rica’s National Biodiversity Program works under the strategy:

Agalychnis callidryas


  1. Saving representative samples of wild biodiversity through the wild protected areas, managed by SINAC – supported by some conservationist NOG’s like the National Park Foundation (FPN), the Neotropical Foundation (FN), the ;Mountain Range Development Foundation (FUNDECOR), amongst others—and the Private Reserve National System managed by the private sector.
  2. To increase the knowledge on the existing biodiversity, mainly on the wild protected areas—this takes place through universities, the National Museum, independent researchers, and the National Institute of Biodiversity (INBio), amongst others—
  3. To look for sustainable and smart uses of theOn this search several institutions take place, amongst them: Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Tropical Agronomist Research and Teaching Center (CATIE), el INBio, and some universities.


El fundamento para el Programa Nacional de Biodiversidad se encuentra en el marco definido a nivel internacional con la "La Estrategia Global para la Biodiversidad (WRI, UICN, PNUMA, 1992)" y la "Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Ambiente y Desarrollo", celebrada en junio de 1992 en Río de Janeiro, Brasil (conocida como Cumbre de la Tierra).

Para más información ver: IV Informe de País