References Useful in Understanding More About Biting Midges and Acknowledgements

Morphology and Taxonomy of biting midges:

- Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 1. Agriculture Canada Monograph 27. 674 pp.

- Blanton, F.S. and W.W. Wirth. 1979. The sand flies (Culicoides) of Florida (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas 10, xv + 204 pp.

- Borkent, A. and G.R. Spinelli (in press). Catalog of New World Biting Midges South of the United States (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Contributions on Entomology, International (this work includes references to all pertinent taxonomic literature for each genus, including available keys).

-Wirth, W.W. and F.S. Blanton. 1959. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides from Panama (Diptera: Heleidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 109:237-482.

- Wirth, W.W. and W.L. Grogan. 1988. The predaceous midges of the world (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Tribe Ceratopogonini). Flora and Fauna Handbook 4, xv + 160 pp., E.J. Brill.

- Wirth, W.W., A.L. Dyce, and G.R. Spinelli. 1988. An atlas of wing photographs, with a summary of the numerical characters of the Neotropical species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Contributions of the American Entomlogical Institute 25:1-72.

List of all the species in the world:

- Borkent, A. and W.W. Wirth. 1997. World Species of Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 233, 257 pp.

The Incredible Fossil Record of Biting Midges (most in amber):

- Borkent, A. 1995. Biting Midges in the Cretaceous Amber of North America (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. 237 pp.

- Borkent, A. (in press). Biting Midges (Ceratopogonidae: Diptera) from Lower Cretaceous Lebanese Amber with a Discussion of the Diversity and Patterns Found in Other Ambers. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.

-Szadziewski, R. and W. L. Grogan. 1994. Biting midges from Dominican amber. I. A new fossil species of Baeodasymyia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 96: 219--229.

-Szadziewski, R. and W. L. Grogan. 1994. The biting midge fauna in Dominican amber (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Third International Congress of Dipterology, Abstract Volume, pp. 220--221.

-Szadziewski, R. and W. L. Grogan. 1996. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Mexican amber. Polskie Pismo Entomol. 65: 291--295.

-Szadziewski, R. and W. L. Grogan. 1997. Biting midges from Dominican amber. II. Species of the tribes Heteromyiini and Palpomyiini (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Mem. Entomol. Soc..Washington 18: 254--260.

-Szadziewski, R. and W. L. Grogan. 1998. Biting midges from Dominican amber. III. Species of the tribes Culicoidini and Ceratopogonini (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Insecta Mundi 12:39-52.

-Szadziewski, R. and W. L. Grogan. 1998b. Biting midges from Dominican amber. IV. Species of the tribes Dasyheleini and Forcipomyiini (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Pol. Pis. Entomol. 67: 255--290.

A detailed list of all the diseases known to be transmitted by biting midges:

- Halouzka, J. and Z. Hubalek. 1996. Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) of medical and veterinary importance (a review). Acta Scientifiarum Naturalium Academiae Scientiarum Bohemicae Brno 30 (2):1-56 (this work includes references to all available work on each of the diseases).

Pollination by Biting Midges:

- Bystrak, P.G. and W.W. Wirth. 1978. The North American species of Forcipomyia, subgenus Euprojoannisia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1591, 51 pp.

- Warmke, H.E. 1951. Studies on pollination of Hevea brasiliensis in Puerto Rico. Science 113:646- 648. - Warmke, H.E. 1952. Studies on natural pollination of Hevea brasiliensis in Brazil. Science 116:474- 475.

- Young, A.M. 1986. Cocoa Pollination. Cocoa Grow. Bull. 37:5-23.

- Young, A.M. 1986. Notes on the distribution and abundance of midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae and Cecidomyiidae) in some Central American cacao plantations. Brenesia 0(24):273-286.

- Wirth, W.W. 1956. The heleid midges involved in the pollination of rubber trees in America (Diptera, Heleidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 58:241-250.

Acknowledgements: Thanks to William L. Grogan and Gustavo R. Spinelli for looking over much of the information in this webpage. Both these coworkers gave permission to reproduce some of their figures here. In addition, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada allowed me to reproduce figures from Chapter 28 in Volume 1 of the Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Agriculture Canada Monograph 27 (reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1999). Brill Academic Publishers kindly gave permission to reproduce figures from the publication by Wirth and Grogan (1988).