Until recently the Dryophthoridae have been called the Rhynchophorinae of the family Curculionidae. It is now generally accepted that they are not true Curculionidae but are better regarded as a separate family, a decision largely based on the primitive structure of the male genitalia. In general, the classification followed here is that of Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (1999), with some recent changes and additions.
Three subfamilies are recognized, the Dryophthorinae, Orthognathinae and Rhynchophorinae. Only two genera, Dryophthorus and Stenommatus comprise the Dryophthorinae which are not treated in detail herein. Orthognathinae contains two tribes, Orthognathini, with the genera Mesocordylus and Orthognathus; and, Rhinostomini with only the genus Rhinostomus. Within the subfamily Rhynchophorinae, the tribe Rhynchophorini contains the genera Rhynchophorus and Dynamis. The Litosomini is comprised of Cosmopolites, Daisya, Eucalandra, Melchus, Neophrynoides, Sitophilus and Toxorhinus. Polytini contains only the genus Polytus with the remaining genera, Alloscolytoproctus, Cactophagus, Metamasius, Rhodobaenus, Scyphophorus and Sphenophorus in the Sphenophorini. Most of the species diversity is in the Rhynchophorinae, especially the Sphenophorini.
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