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Key to subfamilies, tribes and genera in Costa Rica and Panama
1 Antennal funicle of four articles; tarsus of five distinct articles; size small, total body length less than 4 mm Dryophthorinae Dryophthorus Germar, 1824 and Stenommatus Wollaston, 1873
  - Antennal funicle of six articles; tarsus of five articles, but article 4 small and difficult to see at base of article 3; size small to large, total body length greater than 3 mm and generally greater than 10 mm 2
2 Front coxae contiguous; anterior margin of pronotum with postocular lobe; pygidium largely covered by elytra; tarsus with article 3 subequal in width to article 2; mandibles triangular, directed anteriorly and with inner edge lacking teeth Orthognathinae, Orthognathini 3
  - Front coxae distinctly (but in some taxa, narrowly) separated; anterior margin of pronotum straight behind eye; pygidium broadly exposed beyond elytra (most) or largely covered by elytra (few); tarsus with article 3 noticeably wider than article 2 and generally bilobed or occasionally subequal in width to article 4; mandibles variously shaped 4
3 Front tibia with outer apical angle produced anterolaterally to a sharp or narrowly rounded angle; middle and hind legs robust, tibiae much wider at apex than at base, fossorial in form Orthognathus Schoenherr, 1838
  - Front tibia with outer apical angle not produced anterolaterally, broadly rounded; middle and hind legs long and narrow, tibiae with apex and base subequal in width or with apex slightly wider than base, not fossorial in form Mesocordylus Lacordaire, 1866
4 Size small, total body length less than 5 mm; tibia with distinct subapical tooth at inner angle in addition to larger uncus 5
  - Size small to large, total body length greater than 5 mm and generally greater than 10 mm; tibia with either a small rounded subapical swelling (most) or sharp subapical tooth (few) at inner angle in addition to larger uncus 6
5 Rostrum straight, in lateral view with base continuous with head; eyes clearly visible in dorsal view Rhynchophorinae, Litosomini (part) Sitophilus Schoenherr, 1838
  - Rostrum curved ventrally, in lateral view separated from head by basal constriction; eyes not or barely visible in dorsal view Rhynchophorinae, Polytini Polytus Faust, 1894
6 Mandibles large, divaricate, divergent, with distinct teeth on outer edge; outer face concave medially; pygidium largely covered by elytra Orthognathinae, Rhinostomini Rhinostomus Rafinesque, 1815
  - Mandibles small, convergent and occluding medially, with inner margins distinctly toothed (most); or, elongate subtriangular, with inner margins parallel-sided and lacking teeth, not touching medially (few); pygidium broadly exposed beyond elytra 7
7 Size very large, total body length greater than 25 mm; metepisternum very broad, length more or less 2 times width Rhynchophorinae, Rhynchophorini 8
  - Size small to large, total body length greater than 5 mm but usually less than 25 mm; metepisternum narrow, length 3 or more times width 9
8 Scutellum large, with elongate apical extension; rostrum glabrous in female, with elongate, dorsal patch of long, dark brown pilosity in male Rhynchophorus Herbst, 1795
  - Scutellum small, apically acuminate but not extended; rostrum glabrous in both sexes Dynamis Chevrolat, 1883
9 Rostrum extremely long and slender, as long as pronotum and elytra combined; mandibles elongate subtriangular, with inner margins parallel-sided and lacking teeth, not touching medially; antennal club glabrous basally, with slender, stalk-like base, width at apex 3-4 times width at base; legs long and slender Rhynchophorinae, Litosomini (part) Toxorhinus Lacordaire, 1866
  - Rostrum short and robust to long and slender, but shorter than pronotum and elytra combined; mandibles small, convergent and occluding medially, with inner margins distinctly toothed; antennal club with glabrous broad base, width at apex less than 3 times width at base; legs robust 10
10 Body cylindrical; pronotum very slightly shorter than elytra; middle and hind tibiae short, straight, slightly shorter than combined length of tarsal articles 1-4; tibial apices with three distinct apical projections, two (one long, one short) at inner angle, one (short) at outer angle; elytra with distinct long erect setae; interval 2 densely pilose throughout most of length Rhynchophorinae, Sphenophorini (part) Alloscolytoproctus Hustache, 1929
  - Body somewhat to markedly dorsoventrally compressed; pronotum distinctly shorter than elytra; middle and hind tibiae long, straight or curved, longer than combined length of tarsal articles 1-4; tibial apices with single uncus at inner angle (in some also with small rounded subapical swelling or tooth); elytra without long erect setae; no intervals densely pilose 11
11 Scutellum (exposed portion) widest at or near middle, shape rhomboidal or subcircular, more or less as long as wide Rhynchophorinae, Litosomini (part) 12
  - Scutellum (exposed portion) widest at or near base, shape triangular or subtriangular, generally longer than wide Rhynchophorinae, Sphenophorini (part) 16
12 Rostrum markedly laterally compressed in at least apical one-half; body flat, maximum width greater than 1.35 times depth Melchus Lacordaire, 1866
  - Rostrum more or less cylindrical, not laterally compressed; body thicker, maximum width less than 1.35 times depth 13
13 Elytra with scattered concentrations (nodules) of short erect setae, in some cases surrounded by dense micropilosity 14
  - Elytra glabrous or with at most scattered, sparse setae or scales 15
14 Rostrum curved ventrally; antennal club with apical pilose part one-third to one-half length of basal glabrous part; pronotum and/or elytra with scattered patches (nodules) of micropilosity; front femur of male with distinct subapical swelling or tooth on inner margin Daisya Anderson, 2003
  - Rostrum straight; antennal club with apical pilose part obliquely oriented and appearing only as a narrow line; entire body uniformly covered with brownish matte coating; front femur of male without subapical swelling or tooth on inner margin Neophrynoides O’Brien and Wibmer, 1982
15 Rostrum curved ventrally; elytral striae impressed, intervals with single row of fine punctures; pronotum uniformly punctate Cosmopolites Chevrolat, 1885
  - Rostrum more or less straight; elytral striae very shallowly, indistinctly impressed, intervals not punctate; pronotum virtually impunctate Eucalandra Faust, 1899
16 Tarsal article 3 with long ventral pilosity, confined to apical margin as a continuous fringe, ventral surface otherwise glabrous; antennal club obliquely truncate at apex with apical pilose part very short, appearing recessed within glabrous part, visible only as a narrow line in lateral view Scyphophorus Schoenherr, 1838
  - Tarsal article 3 with various ventral pilosity; long or short, uniformly covering 1/3 or more of ventral surface, or with pilosity sparse and confined to anterolateral angle or lateral margins, ventral surface otherwise glabrous; antennal club various, with apex evenly (most) or obliquely (few) truncate; apical pilose part of club short or long, generally visible as more than a narrow line in lateral view 17
17 Tarsal article 3 with ventral pilosity confined to anterolateral angle or lateral margins Sphenophorus Schoenherr, 1838
  - Tarsal article 3 with ventral pilosity more extensive, covering 1/3 or more of ventral surface 18
18 Tarsal article 5 (claw-bearing article) with venter at apex excavate or markedly to slightly bilamellate (difficult to see in some specimens); antennal scape enlarged and laterally compressed (few) or more or less cylindrical (most); rostrum humped with abrupt change of orientation from anteriorly directed near base to ventrally directed near apex (many) or anteroventrally oriented, without any dorsal hump or abrupt change in orientation (many); legs of males and females generally similar in shape and vestiture; pygidium narrow especially towards apex which generally is narrowly rounded, tumescent subapically and extended beyond apex of ventrite 5 in ventral view; male aedeagus without lateral line Rhodobaenus LeConte, 1876 (in part)
  - Tarsal article 5 (claw-bearing article) with apical venter smooth; antennal scape more or less cylindrical (most) or laterally compressed (few); rostrum generally uniformly anteriorly or anteroventrally oriented, without any dorsal hump or abrupt change in orientation (most) or rostrum humped with abrupt change in orientation from anteriorly directed basally to ventrally directed apically (few); legs of males and females either generally similar in structure (many) or with front or hind tibiae of males of a different shape, or bearing different vestiture in the form of rows or tufts of longer hairs (many); pygidium broad especially towards apex which generally is broadly truncate, flat or variously carinate subapically and at most slightly extended beyond apex of ventrite 5 in ventral view; male aedeagus with or without lateral line 19
19 Male aedeagus with lateral line (complete or incomplete); legs with front or hind tibiae of males bearing vestiture in the form of rows or tufts of longer hairs (which are not present in females) or of a different shape (most), or legs of both sexes generally similar in shape and vestiture (few); ventrally, lacking tubercles between front coxae or with metasternum more or less flat between mesocoxae Metamasius Horn, 1876
  - Male aedeagus without lateral line; legs of males and females generally similar in shape and vestiture; ventrally, some species with variously developed tubercles between front coxae or with metasternum markedly produced and subconical between mesocoxae 20
20 Small (8.0-13.0 mm; few) to large (13.0-22.0 mm, most) entirely grey or black species, some with dark velvety black markings or a pale colored "V" or "C" shaped marking on the elytra; ventrally, lacking tubercles between front coxae or with metasternum more or less flat between mesocoxae Rhodobaenus LeConte, 1876 (in part)
  - Small (7.0-8.0 mm; few) to large (12.0-25.0 mm, most) black and red, orange or yellow species (most), or entirely black but then metasternum markedly produced and subconical between mesocoxae (few) or pronotum and elytra distinctly, irregularly sculptured (few); ventrally, with variously developed tubercles between front coxae (many) or with metasternum markedly produced and subconical between mesocoxae (many) Cactophagus LeConte, 1876

 
 

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